Opportunities for Cognitive Growth During Choice Time

In my combined first and second grade, Choice Time was an important part of each day, allowing children’s self-initiated learning to grow through their freedom of choice. There were math, science, art, writing, and book centers each providing activities and materials to inspire and nurture a child’s excitement about learning. Concepts developed in the centers overlap one another. And every afternoon, there was an evaluation time to show, discuss experiences, and add more information about all to extend future learning in the following days.

For instance, in the math center classification was involved whenever there was sorting of materials for building a structure or for solving a puzzle or making a design – looking at  the parts and deciding how to fit them into the whole thing, the finished creation. In the science center, shells and stones were sorted and classified according to different properties. Children frequently looked at likenesses and differences plus comparing and contrasting, all pre-requisites to classification, in many things such as birds’ nests and feathers, various kinds of plants, and collections of bark, fall seeds, fungi, etc. And when they tried to see if a bug was an insect, identifying the five parts was a huge classification feat. In the art center, there were constant opportunities to notice likenesses and differences – exposure to the various textures of the materials. Classification was involved whenever separate materials were combined to make a whole – collages and painting and creating designs and using small boxes to make whole structures.

Classification formed in the learning centers are the very tools required for successful achievement in all academic areas. It is necessary in social studies when studying various groups of people and geographical features. In addition to ordering and sequencing, good ability to classify is necessary while alphabetizing, using the dictionary, and spelling. To anticipate or predict outcomes in literature require looking at the parts (the details) compared to the whole (the plot) plus comparing the parts among the parts. To understand paragraphs, children need to know the sequence of events and be capable of looking at the details (the parts) compared to the whole written piece. Identifying the main idea requires understanding the relationship of the whole to the parts. Decoding is an immense classification feat. And all of the above are required when children are writing, composing a story, or an article.

Much of math requires classification, and it must become internalized before children can understand and use their math without objects. Addition involves sorting and then classifying – looking at all the parts compared to the parts and those compared to the whole. Then multiplication is just a more complex form of classifying – looking at multiple groups of numbers in relation to wholes. Subtraction and division require all of the above plus reversibility of thought. Solving the missing addend, 2 + ? = 5 or ? + 3 = 5, requires reversibility of thought, and most first graders are too young for that. Fractions need an understanding about how the parts relate to the parts, the parts to the whole, and the whole to the parts.

Understanding conservation requires the ability to see transformations and reversibility. Once that is understood, children will know that two amounts are equal no matter what form they take. In the math center, they see a bucket of Cuisenaire Rods using various amounts of space – dumped on the floor, made into a building, or into long roads and then these same rods gathered up and put back into the bucket. A whole puzzle is dismantled, spread out on a table and then put back together again in the smaller space of the completed puzzle. And sometimes during Choice Time there was water play with different size containers. Following this in the afternoon with the whole class, the class would be shown one amount of water, and then have them guess if it would fit into other shaped containers. In the art center, cleaning up with sponges is a good example – a sponge full of water squeezed out and then the same water reabsorbed. All children helped clean up at one time or another. Any kind of modeling medium, such as clay or plasticine or play dough, starts out with one ball, and then can be rolled or shaped into many different configurations, and finally returned to the same original size ball.

In the art center there are many transformations taking place without reversibility – any kind of painting where one small amount of paint on a brush or a sponge is spread over a wide area. At least once a year, they became enraptured with making paper chains as long as they could – first to the length of the room and then back and forth until finally they’d give up. Some 9 x 12 pieces of paper, cut into strips in one pile, can then be connected to a long, long chain.

If Merry is a competent math student, she must also have a good understanding of conservation. She must recognize that the number is always the same no matter what sizes or shapes are presented. It could be five marbles or five buildings or five children. And they could be in a straight line, bunched together or scattered far and wide. It is still five. Merry must recognize that a dime is not less than the bigger nickel. She must be able to internalize patterns of numbers to do mental math. In order to measure liquid accurately, she must be capable of seeing different shaped containers holding the same amount. In reading, before she could imagine cause and effect, she would need to have acquired conservation and therefore, reversibility of thought. As long as her thinking is static, she could not reverse her thinking to imagine an effect from a cause, nor could she think about the effect if she could not imagine the original state.

Losing egocentrism is such an important process to overcome – to be able to see and understand other viewpoints, both intellectually and socially. For Jerry to realize that the whole world doesn’t see things exactly the way he does – that there are many different views and aspects to situations. Whenever children are looking at all parts of a structure while building in the math center or constructing in the art center with boxes or clay or making mobiles, they are exposed to all sides plus the top and sometimes the bottom. If Helen, an egocentric child, looked at only one side of a structure she wouldn’t be able to imagine the shape of the other sides. So, constructions in the math and art centers help children overcome their concentration of static situations. During social conflicts there were opportunities to point out the other side of a situation trying to help a child realize there are other opinions and attitudes. Always. Piaget believed that one reason children lose their egocentrism is because of disagreements with their friends. A child begins to realize there are other viewpoints and after enough exposure with concrete experiences, children begin to think abstractly.

Losing egocentrism is also important for achieving good reading comprehension. Eventually, if a child cannot consider any other viewpoint and believes that everyone understands and sees things exactly the way he does, then he cannot understand the viewpoints of the author, empathize with the characters, and consider hypotheses, or notice similarities and differences in order to make comparisons and contrasts. He also would be incapable of evaluating and understanding the whole. And if he could not manage any of that, his writing would be very weak indeed. And think of the massive misunderstandings that would occur in social studies. How can we expect any child to appreciate others or be compatible if one’s thinking is so static?

So, concepts developed during Choice Time are the very tools which contribute to good comprehension and development in all academic areas. Certainly many of the cognitive traits are expected and taught in academic areas; however, if the concepts are not developed in real life experiences, then a child’s comprehension will be very weak or completely lacking. When these concepts are materialized, then a child’s very best achievement can be attained. Once when teaching an advanced third grade class in reading, half of them could not comprehend a story about the ocean and tides. I asked how many had never been to the ocean, and the very ones who couldn’t understand it raised their hands. Well, you can’t very well experience tides around the Great Lakes where we lived. And, of course, we couldn’t offer any experiences in tides during Choice Time. The point is that without direct experiences, understanding can’t take place. So, the more those children are able to incorporate a good cognitive structure, the more depth of understanding will occur. Therefore, the cognitive abilities attained in the math, science, and art centers are vital contributions to good achievement in all academic areas, and there is a direct association between the two.

Now, of course any child wouldn’t be completely lacking in all of the concepts presented here. They overcome a little at a time and in an uneven fashion – and continue to develop throughout life. So Troy, for instance, could be egocentric or lacking behaviors in some areas and not in others. The point is that Choice Time is a time to further develop these abilities necessary for good to excellent achievement in all academic areas. And opportunities in a school program are unlikely to allow such advances in concept attainment as there are in a Choice Time with learning centers.

So, as children are engaged with materials and each other during Choice Time, plus reading books and discussing those activities during evaluation time in the afternoons, they are absorbing a tremendous amount of knowledge about their world. These concrete experiences create ideas which are then expressed through language. While busily occupied and helping each other, they are engaged in friendly conversations plus discussing, debating, and arguing with their classmates. And school programs are not likely to offer children the opportunities for cognitive growth without a period of Choice Time. They may learn as much from each other as they do from adults.

A complete description with materials and activities of all five learning centers are in my book, Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Included is a web site where programs and activities can be downloaded for use in a classroom. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

Choice Time for First and Second Grade

In my combined first and second grade, Choice Time for children’s  self-initiated learning was an important part of each day, a time to participate and explore in the learning centers – a time to learn on their own. There were math, science, art, writing, and book centers. Each of five centers provided appropriate activities and materials to invite and nurture a child’s joy in discovery and excitement about learning. Concrete experiences serve as a background for new insights and understandings in the world around them. These, in turn, not only kept their minds active but provided an extra basis for abstract thought that would be a benefit throughout all academic areas. The materials in each center were enough to capture the interest of the very brightest students and yet still be appealing to slower or younger children.

Few materials were offered at first in each center increasing as their growth in responsibility progressed. Vital to the smooth functioning of the class, the amount of freedom or choices that children were allowed to have were coexistent and contingent upon the amount of responsibility they were able to assume. Then there was great harmony. Of course, sometimes a child was disruptive or interfering with others and had to be dealt with but the ability to handle numerous choices must be apparent with most of the class. We had very few rules – no fooling around or wasting time and everyone should be busy.

Children were involved for the first thirty to forty minutes each day (while individual students were met for writing and math) followed by an afternoon evaluation time. Projects that could be saved were put on my desk to show and explore with the whole class after lunch and recess. Those that couldn’t be saved, such as constructions in the math center, were shared and discussed just before clean-up time. During the evaluation time, a whole range of ideas were explored with positive comments, constructive suggestions offered, problems discussed and solved, new ideas and concepts introduced, and books read about the displays. In this way, the whole class was involved with others’ projects leading to more understanding for the next day’s investigations.

Important aspects concerning concept development during Choice Time included opportunities for increasing each child’s cognitive development; that concepts developed in the math, science, and art centers overlap one another providing opportunities for cognitive development while participating in any of the three; and the concepts formed in these three centers are the very tools required for successful achievement in reading, writing, math, science, and social studies. And there’s no limit to young children’s vast enthusiasm for learning.

Choice Time is a time to further develop abilities necessary for good to excellent achievement in all academic areas. And opportunities in a school program are unlikely to allow such advances in concept attainment as there are in a Choice Time with learning centers.

See my two entries about further cognitive growth: http://peggybroadbent.com/blog/index.php?s=Opportunities+for+Cognitive+Growth+During+Choice+Time

and

http://peggybroadbent.com/blog/index.php?s=Young+Children%27s+Cognitive+Gains+Through+Art

A complete description with materials and activities of all five learning centers are in my book, Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Included is a web site where programs and activities can be downloaded for use in a classroom. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

Animals and Natural Science in First and Second Grade

In my combined first and second grade classes, children’s self-initiated learning took place during Choice Time. These concrete experiences served as a background for gaining new insights and understandings.

It isn’t important which things are offered but vital that science is a big part of young children’s lives. The resulted learning is immense. Science can promote curiosity, discovery, investigation, and experimentation resulting in extending children’s vocabulary, language, and concepts about their world. It offers opportunities to develop rational and critical thinking, and the skills of problem solving, comparing and contrasting, classification, and observation. There are also opportunities for significant reading and writing.

Supplies

a terrarium                                                           birds’ nests

feathers                                                                   plants, seeds, and bulbs

collections: shells, stones and rocks,                toads and turtles

fossils, bark, fall seeds, fungi, acorns,

microscopes chestnuts,

everything blue, etc.                                     lizards

land crabs                                                                  slugs

pumpkins                                                                   monarch caterpillars and butterflies

cycle of mealworms                                                         and others, plus chrysalises and

fish and snails                                                           cocoons

slugs mice

pollywogs                                                                   spiders

live and dried insects                                             snakes

ants                                                                             molds

crayfish                                                                     parakeet

praying mantis                                                       science books

magnifying glasses

The collections and materials above found their way in our science center during each year. An exciting exhibit in the early fall was monarch caterpillars and chrysalises. Children were busy watching closely the sequence of the life span until finally – the butterfly

There was always a forest terrarium to house whatever might be brought to school. In the fall we had many creatures that grew in the area. Most we would keep for about a month and then let them go in a proper place. In the spring, we would have local creatures again. Other animals and reptiles found their way into our terrarium from parents or purchases from the pet store. We sometimes had a toad that lived in the terrarium all winter and seemed to become quite tame. There was a never-ending interest watching the toad whipping out its extended tongue to eat a mealworm. And then raising mealworms to feed the toad continued our study of life cycles. (Mealworms can be raised in a box of oatmeal containing cut-up potatoes.)

We accepted anything that we could properly care for and the children could hold and catch. There wasn’t often an aquarium because interest was high during the talks and preparation but waned after the fish were introduced. It happened with anything that could not be held.

There were also collections, such as shells, fall seeds, and birds’ nests and feathers. While some sorted and classified shells, others tried to guess what properties were involved. A big display of fall seeds emphasized life cycles and how they travel through wind, animals and people. We read a book about various birds’ nests to help in identification. Observing the various birds’ feathers, children tried to determine what parts of the bird the feathers had originated from and what purpose each had.

With the help of books in the afternoons, children learned more about the exhibits in the science center. For instance, books could be about the differences between various nests, a toad and a frog, a butterfly and a moth, a turtle and a tortoise; the differences between instinct and learned behavior.

For insect study, there was a chart showing the five parts – the head, the thorax, the abdomen, two sets of wings and six legs. Then we looked and searched for small things to see if they were insects or not. What a classification feat that was!

Raising mice each January, we became involved in a study about genes and heredity. It was most exciting each time we had a new litter – which was very often. We transferred the knowledge about the mouse genetics to other animals and people.

During the spring, a variety of seeds were planted from those found in fruits and vegetables, such as apple and melon seeds and the eyes of potatoes plus an assortment of bulbs and flower seeds.

Concepts gained during science activities not only kept their minds active but provided an extra basis for abstract thought that would be a benefit throughout all academic areas. And there’s no limit to young children’s vast enthusiasm for learning.

Read more about Choice Time and the science program in my book, Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Included is a web site where programs and activities can be downloaded for use in a classroom. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

Plant Experiments with Lima Beans for First and Second Grade

In my combined first and second grades, before carrying out lima bean experiments, planting books were regularly read to the class. There was a thorough review of the required conditions for healthy plant growth – good soil, water, light, and warmth. There was also information about how scientists formed a hypothesis – what they thought would happen and why.

When it was time for carrying out the experiments, lima beans were soaked in water for ½ hour. They loved opening up some of them to see the small plant inside each bean. Then children in groups of three or four planted two lima beans in each of three ½ pint milk cartons. The control plant would be planted in the right condition while the other two would each have one condition changed. They were to decide what the changed condition of their experimental plants would be and the names of all three.

Children wrote a first report explaining the names of the plants, what the changed condition would be, and making their hypotheses. There were ideas on the blackboard to help in writing this report.

Throughout the years there were such a variety of changed conditions. Water and soil were most common using liquids such as sodas, juices, and sauces. Much imagination was used for the planting materials as in assorted cereals, sand, sawdust, styrofoam, peanut butter, and pine needles. For only one year, a changed condition was warmth using the nurse’s refrigerator. However, it wasn’t viewed favorably having the experiment in with the medications. and daily those children had to go down and look. Of course, there wasn’t any growth, so in future years, it was just explained what happened that year, and we skipped changing that condition. It was common to grow one in the dark and they found that interesting because they usually predicted, since it needed light, that it wouldn’t grow. But at first it grew very well and some days later found that it became very spindly. Others altered the light by enclosing the plant with a tent of colored cellophane.

Each group had the items for their experiment listed on a 3”x 5”index card covered with cellophane, with the pertinent information. For example: Silly, Cool One, and Gentle: changed conditions – Silly watered with grape juice/Cool One watered with lemonade/Gentle, the control plant.

Every morning upon arrival, children would scurry over to their experiment to see what, if any, changes had taken place since the previous afternoon. Of course, Monday mornings were most intriguing.

After several or more weeks of observing, final reports were written explaining the results.

Read more about the science program and the experiments in my book,  Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Included is a web site where programs can be downloaded for use in a classroom. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

Young Children’s Cogitive Gains Through Art

Art for young children entails an exploration of materials, a way of learning further about their world. When children are engaged with paper-cutting, gluing, constructing, coloring, designing, collaging or whatever, they should be able to participate at their own maturity level. Piaget believed that children need activities that they can relate to in their own past experiences and from there, will seek novelty. It’s this novelty that fosters a child’s growing intellect. Therefore, it’s important to offer as many different materials as possible to stimulate interest and provide opportunities for new and interesting creations. As they interact with old and new materials, to paste or construct or paint, each child is able to thrive and grow. It is the process of art that should be emphasized. When participating in art using their own ideas, children are learning a tremendous amount. They have opportunities to develop the very same cognitive traits necessary to succeed in academic areas.

In many art activities, there are possibilities for understanding transformations and reversibility. A child who doesn’t understand these characteristics while cleaning tables with sponges will squeeze the water out all over the table. Then he will saturate the sponge with that same water squeezing it out on the table and this is repeated over and over again – until finally realizing that the saturated sponge must be squeezed out in the sink. So, he has watched the water from a small sponge spread out over the table, a liquid being transformed, and then is able to soak up the same water into the sponge again, and see that same liquid reversed. Transformations are evident in all kinds of painting – brush painting, finger painting, ink blots, and string painting. Paper folding after cutting out designs for snowflakes shows transformations, and then reversibility is evident if after the paper is unfolded, it is re-folded to show the original state.

There are opportunities to become aware of similarities and differences by discovering objects that will print and not print, can be pasted or not pasted, can be taped or not taped and the possibilities of recognizing things that are larger or smaller, smoother or rougher, darker or lighter.

Similarities and differences plus transformations and reversibility are pre-requisites to understanding classification. This requires a recognition of the relationships between the parts to the whole – using separate paints to make one whole painting; the whole to the parts – a piece of paper cut into separate parts; and the parts to the parts – whenever engaged in making symmetrical designs.

There are numerous opportunities to aid in understanding conservation – the ability to recognize that different substances are the same amount no matter what types of transformations take place. This occurs when realizing, with that sponge full of water when it  spread all over the table, that the same amount of water can be contained within the sponge again, and understanding that one ball of clay or play dough made into many different shapes is the same amount when put back together again into one ball.

Overcoming egocentrism, the ability to understand other viewpoints than what is first observed, occurs when constructing with paper or boxes, or working with clay, or making mobiles. A child is looking at all sides and angles – offering the ability to see all aspects.

And through social interaction with others while listening to various viewpoints, there are chances for good logical thinking, and problem solving.

So, art activities for young  children keep their minds active in numerous ways and should always be an important part of the classroom.

Read more about Choice Time and the Art Center in my book, Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

Children’s Explorations in an Art Center

In my combined first and second grade classes, children freely participated in the art center during Choice Time.

Readily available materials bought with school supply money included: all types of paper; scissors, pencils, crayons, and felt pens; masking tape and scotch tape; staplers; craft sticks; string and yarn; wallpaper books; paint; rulers; and plasticine. Then parents supplied a huge variety of junk materials.

It has been long understood that when children are participating in art, they are in a process that includes nourishing expression, an acuteness of the senses, experimentation and risk-taking, developing imagination, and creative development. However, in addition to these assets, it’s also another way of communicating.

Much of art for the young child involves exploring a wide range of materials. It should include the process that is emphasized. When children were given directions for making a product, like making a present for their parents, I didn’t consider it art. It may have been following directions and the product important, and it may have been very attractive and artistic and a valuable activity in itself – but it wasn’t art for young children. It wasn’t using materials creatively. One’s own creations allow a child to thrive and grow emotionally and cognitively.

Young children’s initial art experience is pure investigation, but as they grow older and have more involvement, the maturity of their art unfolds. With various materials, there were three stages while making collages, working with clay, and with different types of painting. At first there’s pure exploration with sometimes smearing and dabbling. Sometime in the middle of messing around, an idea begins to take place. This stage is finally replaced with attempts to replicate a preconceived idea.

When participating in art activities using their own ideas, children are learning a tremendous amount. Using many materials, they are learning about similarities and differences, transformations and reversibility, and opportunities for overcoming egocentricity during any type of construction, constantly seeing all sides of a structure. So, they have opportunities to develop the very same cognitive traits necessary to succeed in academic areas.

Read more about Choice Time and programs in my book, Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Included is a web site where programs and activities can be downloaded for use in a classroom. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

   Teaching Young Children © Peggy Broadbent 2011 - All Rights Reserved