Physical Science for First and Second Grade

In my combined first and second grade, physical science was one of the offerings for Choice Time – allowing participation and exploration while discussing and debating with their classmates. Children may learn as much from each other as they do from adults. Perhaps more. A center provides appropriate activities and materials to invite and nurture a child’s joy in discovery and excitement about learning.

Supplies

pulleys, levers, and gears                       microscopes

magnets                                                       paper airplanes

magnifiers                                                   motors

electricity                                                    batteries

There was a science kit with pulleys, levers, and gears. The children experimented with various contraptions.

There was a collection of magnets, horseshoe magnets and different size and strengths of bar magnets, used with all kinds of projects. There was much experimentation, such as discovering the poles that would attract and those that repelled, making an electromagnet, finding what substances magnetism would and would not go through, and magnetizing a needle and a nail. They observed a magnetic field using iron filings.

Electricity was a big favorite. The class learned about circuits and knowledge was extended when they learned about lights in a series, those that were parallel, and short circuits. There were small motors that they found a variety of activities for.

Science provides opportunities for increasing their cognitive development. Concepts gained during science activities not only kept their minds active but provided an extra basis for abstract thought that would be a benefit throughout all academic areas. And there’s no limit to young children’s vast enthusiasm for learning.

Read more about science and other programs in my book, Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Included is a web site where programs and activities can be downloaded for use in a classroom. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

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Animals and Natural Science in First and Second Grade

In my combined first and second grade classes, children’s self-initiated learning took place during Choice Time. These concrete experiences served as a background for gaining new insights and understandings.

It isn’t important which things are offered but vital that science is a big part of young children’s lives. The resulted learning is immense. Science can promote curiosity, discovery, investigation, and experimentation resulting in extending children’s vocabulary, language, and concepts about their world. It offers opportunities to develop rational and critical thinking, and the skills of problem solving, comparing and contrasting, classification, and observation. There are also opportunities for significant reading and writing.

Supplies

a terrarium                                                           birds’ nests

feathers                                                                   plants, seeds, and bulbs

collections: shells, stones and rocks,                toads and turtles

fossils, bark, fall seeds, fungi, acorns,

microscopes chestnuts,

everything blue, etc.                                     lizards

land crabs                                                                  slugs

pumpkins                                                                   monarch caterpillars and butterflies

cycle of mealworms                                                         and others, plus chrysalises and

fish and snails                                                           cocoons

slugs mice

pollywogs                                                                   spiders

live and dried insects                                             snakes

ants                                                                             molds

crayfish                                                                     parakeet

praying mantis                                                       science books

magnifying glasses

The collections and materials above found their way in our science center during each year. An exciting exhibit in the early fall was monarch caterpillars and chrysalises. Children were busy watching closely the sequence of the life span until finally – the butterfly

There was always a forest terrarium to house whatever might be brought to school. In the fall we had many creatures that grew in the area. Most we would keep for about a month and then let them go in a proper place. In the spring, we would have local creatures again. Other animals and reptiles found their way into our terrarium from parents or purchases from the pet store. We sometimes had a toad that lived in the terrarium all winter and seemed to become quite tame. There was a never-ending interest watching the toad whipping out its extended tongue to eat a mealworm. And then raising mealworms to feed the toad continued our study of life cycles. (Mealworms can be raised in a box of oatmeal containing cut-up potatoes.)

We accepted anything that we could properly care for and the children could hold and catch. There wasn’t often an aquarium because interest was high during the talks and preparation but waned after the fish were introduced. It happened with anything that could not be held.

There were also collections, such as shells, fall seeds, and birds’ nests and feathers. While some sorted and classified shells, others tried to guess what properties were involved. A big display of fall seeds emphasized life cycles and how they travel through wind, animals and people. We read a book about various birds’ nests to help in identification. Observing the various birds’ feathers, children tried to determine what parts of the bird the feathers had originated from and what purpose each had.

With the help of books in the afternoons, children learned more about the exhibits in the science center. For instance, books could be about the differences between various nests, a toad and a frog, a butterfly and a moth, a turtle and a tortoise; the differences between instinct and learned behavior.

For insect study, there was a chart showing the five parts – the head, the thorax, the abdomen, two sets of wings and six legs. Then we looked and searched for small things to see if they were insects or not. What a classification feat that was!

Raising mice each January, we became involved in a study about genes and heredity. It was most exciting each time we had a new litter – which was very often. We transferred the knowledge about the mouse genetics to other animals and people.

During the spring, a variety of seeds were planted from those found in fruits and vegetables, such as apple and melon seeds and the eyes of potatoes plus an assortment of bulbs and flower seeds.

Concepts gained during science activities not only kept their minds active but provided an extra basis for abstract thought that would be a benefit throughout all academic areas. And there’s no limit to young children’s vast enthusiasm for learning.

Read more about Choice Time and the science program in my book, Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Included is a web site where programs and activities can be downloaded for use in a classroom. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

Plant Experiments with Lima Beans for First and Second Grade

In my combined first and second grades, before carrying out lima bean experiments, planting books were regularly read to the class. There was a thorough review of the required conditions for healthy plant growth – good soil, water, light, and warmth. There was also information about how scientists formed a hypothesis – what they thought would happen and why.

When it was time for carrying out the experiments, lima beans were soaked in water for ½ hour. They loved opening up some of them to see the small plant inside each bean. Then children in groups of three or four planted two lima beans in each of three ½ pint milk cartons. The control plant would be planted in the right condition while the other two would each have one condition changed. They were to decide what the changed condition of their experimental plants would be and the names of all three.

Children wrote a first report explaining the names of the plants, what the changed condition would be, and making their hypotheses. There were ideas on the blackboard to help in writing this report.

Throughout the years there were such a variety of changed conditions. Water and soil were most common using liquids such as sodas, juices, and sauces. Much imagination was used for the planting materials as in assorted cereals, sand, sawdust, styrofoam, peanut butter, and pine needles. For only one year, a changed condition was warmth using the nurse’s refrigerator. However, it wasn’t viewed favorably having the experiment in with the medications. and daily those children had to go down and look. Of course, there wasn’t any growth, so in future years, it was just explained what happened that year, and we skipped changing that condition. It was common to grow one in the dark and they found that interesting because they usually predicted, since it needed light, that it wouldn’t grow. But at first it grew very well and some days later found that it became very spindly. Others altered the light by enclosing the plant with a tent of colored cellophane.

Each group had the items for their experiment listed on a 3”x 5”index card covered with cellophane, with the pertinent information. For example: Silly, Cool One, and Gentle: changed conditions – Silly watered with grape juice/Cool One watered with lemonade/Gentle, the control plant.

Every morning upon arrival, children would scurry over to their experiment to see what, if any, changes had taken place since the previous afternoon. Of course, Monday mornings were most intriguing.

After several or more weeks of observing, final reports were written explaining the results.

Read more about the science program and the experiments in my book,  Early Childhood Programs: Opportunities for Academic, Cognitive, and Personal Success. Included is a web site where programs can be downloaded for use in a classroom. Also, see 7 reviews on www.amazon.com

   Teaching Young Children © Peggy Broadbent 2011 - All Rights Reserved